Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 3. Summary of significant accounting policies
Basis of presentation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Akoustis, Inc. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates and assumptions
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date(s) of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period(s).
Critical accounting estimates are estimates for which (a) the nature of the estimate is material due to the levels of subjectivity and judgment necessary to account for highly uncertain matters or the susceptibility of such matters to change and (b) the impact of the estimate on financial condition or operating performance is material. The Company’s critical accounting estimates and assumptions affecting the financial statements were:
These significant accounting estimates or assumptions bear the risk of change due to the fact that there are uncertainties attached to these estimates or assumptions, and certain estimates or assumptions are difficult to measure or value.
Management bases its estimates on various assumptions that are believed to be reasonable in relation to the financial statements taken as a whole under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash deposits. The Company maintains its cash in institutions insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). At times, the Company’s cash and cash equivalent balances may be uninsured or in amounts that exceed the FDIC insurance limits; as of June 30, 2021, approximately $88 million was uninsured.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) valuation method.
Inventory, net of reserves, consisted of the following as of June 30, 2021 and June 30, 2020 (in thousands):
Property and equipment, net
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight–line method on the various asset classes over their estimated useful lives, which range from two to eleven years. Expenditures for major renewals and betterments that extend the useful lives of property and equipment are capitalized. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs, which do not extend the economic useful life of the related assets, are charged to operations as incurred. The Company records gains or losses on the disposal of assets as the difference between net book value of assets and cash received less costs to dispose of assets. Gains or losses on the disposal of assets, as well as impairment of assets held for sale are recorded in operating expenses.
Intangible assets, net
Intangible assets consist of patents, and trademarks. Applicable long–lived assets are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives, the estimated period that the assets will generate revenue, or the statutory or contractual term in the case of patents. Estimates of useful lives and periods of expected revenue generation are reviewed for appropriateness and are based upon management’s judgment. Patents are amortized on the straight-line method over their useful lives of 15 years.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company assesses the recoverability of its long-lived assets, including property and equipment, when there are indications that the assets might be impaired. When evaluating assets for potential impairment, the Company compares the carrying value of the asset to its estimated undiscounted future cash flows. If an asset’s carrying value exceeds such estimated undiscounted cash flows, the Company records an impairment charge for the difference between the carrying amount of the asset and its fair value.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents and accounts payable approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the guidance of ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures,” which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements.
ASC 820 defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. ASC 820 also establishes a fair value hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
Fair value measurements are categorized using a valuation hierarchy for disclosure of the inputs used to measure fair value, which prioritize the inputs into three broad levels:
Level 1 - Quoted prices are available in active markets for identical assets or liabilities as of the reporting date. Active markets are those in which transactions for the asset or liability occur in sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.
Level 2 - Pricing inputs are other than quoted prices in active markets included in level 1, which are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reported date, and include those financial instruments that are valued using models or other valuation methodologies.
Level 3 - Pricing inputs include significant inputs that are generally less observable from objective sources. These inputs may be used with internally developed methodologies that result in management’s best estimate of fair value.
The Company evaluates its options, warrants, convertible notes, or other contracts, if any, to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be separately accounted for in accordance with paragraph 815-10-05-4 and Section 815-40-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the embedded derivative is marked-to-market each balance sheet date and recorded as either an asset or a liability. The change in fair value is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations as other income or expense. Upon conversion, exercise or cancellation of a derivative instrument, the instrument is marked to fair value at the date of conversion, exercise or cancellation and then the related fair value is reclassified to equity.
In circumstances where the embedded conversion option in a convertible instrument is required to be bifurcated and there are also other embedded derivative instruments in the convertible instrument that are required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument.
The classification of derivative instruments, including whether such instruments should be recorded as liabilities or as equity, is re-assessed at the end of each reporting period. Equity instruments that are initially classified as equity that become subject to reclassification are reclassified to liability at the fair value of the instrument on the reclassification date. Derivative instrument liabilities will be classified in the balance sheet as current or non-current based on whether or not net-cash settlement of the derivative instrument is expected within 12 months of the balance sheet date.
The Company adopted Section 815-40-15 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Section 815-40-15”) to determine whether an instrument (or an embedded feature) is indexed to the Company’s own stock. Section 815-40-15 provides that an entity should use a two-step approach to evaluate whether an equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to its own stock, including evaluating the instrument’s contingent exercise and settlement provisions.
The Company utilizes a Monte Carlo simulation to compute the fair value of the derivative liability and to mark to market the fair value of the derivative at each balance sheet date. The Company records the change in the fair value of the derivative as other income or expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company utilizes the with-and-without method, a form of the income approach model to compute the fair value of its embedded derivatives associated with its convertible note. The fair value of the embedded derivatives represents the difference in the present value of anticipated cash flows assuming the feature is present as compared to a security without the same feature. The Company records the change in the fair value of the derivative as other income or expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company derives its revenue primarily from the sale of filter products under individual customer purchase orders, some of which have underlying master sales agreements that specify terms governing the product sales. In the absence of a sales agreement, the Company’s standard terms and conditions apply. Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to the Company’s customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company applies a five-step approach as defined in FASB ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), in determining the amount and timing of revenue to be recognized: (1) identifying the contract with a customer; (2) identifying the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determining the transaction price; (4) allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognizing revenue when the corresponding performance obligation is satisfied.
Each distinct promise to transfer products is considered to be an identified performance obligation for which revenue is recognized at a point in time upon transfer of control of the products to the customer. Transfer of control occurs upon shipment to the distributor or direct customer. Returns under the Company’s general assurance warranty of products have not been material, and warranty-related services are not considered a separate performance obligation.
Pricing adjustments and estimates of returns are treated as variable consideration for purposes of determining the transaction price. Sales returns are generally accepted at the Company’s discretion. Variable consideration is estimated using the expected value method considering all reasonably available information, including the Company’s historical experience and its current expectations, and is reflected in the transaction price when sales are recorded. The Company records net revenue excluding taxes collected on its sales to trade customers.
Accounts receivable represents the Company’s unconditional right to receive consideration from its customer. Substantially all payments are collected within the Company’s standard terms, which do not include a significant financing component. To date, there have been no material impairment losses on accounts receivable.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred.
The Company recognizes compensation expense for all equity–based payments in accordance with ASC 718 “Compensation – Stock Compensation” based on estimated fair values. The fair value of share-based payment awards is amortized over the requisite service period, which is defined as the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for an award. The Company recognizes the expense for the awards ratably over the service period for each separately vesting tranche.
Awards granted by the Company generally vest over the requisite service periods, typically over a four-year or five-year period. Awards granted to non-employee directors generally vest over a one-year period from the grant date.
The fair value of a restricted stock award is equal to the fair market value of a share of Company stock on the date of grant.
The fair value of an option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black–Scholes option valuation model. The Black–Scholes option valuation model requires the development of assumptions that are inputs into the model. These assumptions are the value of the underlying share, the expected stock volatility, the risk–free interest rate, the expected life of the option, and the dividend yield on the underlying stock. Expected volatility is calculated using the historical volatilities of the Company’s common stock traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market over the expected term. Risk–free interest rates are calculated based on continuously compounded risk–free rates for the appropriate term. The expected life of the option is calculated under the simplified method. The dividend yield is assumed to be zero as the Company has never paid or declared any cash dividends on its Common stock and does not intend to pay dividends on its Common stock in the foreseeable future. The Company accounts for the impact of forfeitures as they occur.
Determining the appropriate fair value model and calculating the fair value of equity–based payment awards requires the input of the subjective assumptions described above. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of equity–based payment awards represent management’s best estimates, which involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. As a result, if factors change and the Company uses different assumptions, equity–based compensation could be materially different in the future. In addition, the Company has elected to account for the impact of forfeitures as those forfeitures occur. If the Company’s actual forfeitures are material, the equity–based compensation could be significantly different from what the Company has recorded in the current period.
In determining income for financial statement purposes, the Company must make certain estimates and judgments in the calculation of tax expense, the resultant tax liabilities, and in the recoverability of deferred tax assets that arise from temporary differences between the tax and financial statement recognition of revenue and expense.
As part of the financial process, the Company assesses on a tax jurisdictional basis the likelihood that the Company’s deferred tax assets can be recovered. If recovery is not more likely than not (a likelihood of less than 50 percent), the provision for taxes must be increased by recording a reserve in the form of a valuation allowance for the deferred tax assets that are estimated not to ultimately be recoverable. In this process, certain relevant criteria are evaluated including: the amount of income or loss in prior years, the existence of deferred tax liabilities that can be used to absorb deferred tax assets, future expected taxable income, and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. Changes in taxable income, market conditions, U.S. or international tax laws, and other factors may change the Company’s judgment regarding whether the Company will be able to realize the deferred tax assets. These changes, if any, may require material adjustments to the net deferred tax assets and an accompanying reduction or increase in income tax expense which will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in net income in the period when such determinations are made.
As part of the Company’s financial process, the Company also assess the likelihood that the Company’s tax reporting positions will ultimately be sustained. To the extent it is determined it is more likely than not (a likelihood of more than 50 percent) that some portion or all of a tax reporting position will ultimately not be recognized and sustained, a provision for unrecognized tax benefit is provided by either reducing the applicable deferred tax asset or accruing an income tax liability. The Company’s judgment regarding the sustainability of the Company’s tax reporting positions may change in the future due to changes in U.S. or international tax laws and other factors. These changes, if any, may require material adjustments to the related deferred tax assets or accrued income tax liabilities and an accompanying reduction or increase in income tax expense which will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in net income in the period when such determinations are made. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in selling, general and administrative expenses.
Shares outstanding include shares of restricted stock with respect to which restrictions have not lapsed. Shares of restricted stock are included in the calculation of weighted average shares outstanding. Restricted stock included in reportable shares outstanding were as follows as of June 30, 2021 and 2020.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
The Company has evaluated the recently issued accounting pronouncements and does not believe that any of these pronouncements will have a significant impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef