Summary of significant accounting policies
|12 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of significant accounting policies||
Note 3. Summary of significant accounting policies
Basis of presentation
The Companys consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (US GAAP) and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Akoustis, Inc. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates and assumptions
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date(s) of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period(s).
Critical accounting estimates are estimates for which (a) the nature of the estimate is material due to the levels of subjectivity and judgment necessary to account for highly uncertain matters or the susceptibility of such matters to change and (b) the impact of the estimate on financial condition or operating performance is material. The Companys critical accounting estimates and assumptions affecting the financial statements were:
These significant accounting estimates or assumptions bear the risk of change due to the fact that there are uncertainties attached to these estimates or assumptions, and certain estimates or assumptions are difficult to measure or value.
Management bases its estimates on various assumptions that are believed to be reasonable in relation to the financial statements taken as a whole under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. As of June 30, 2016, June 30, 2015, March 31, 2016 and March 31, 2015, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $4,155,444, $4,329,496, $2,730,105 and $687,739, respectively. Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash deposits. The Company maintains its cash in institutions insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). At times, the Companys cash and cash equivalent balances may be uninsured or in amounts that exceed the FDIC insurance limits.
Inventory is stated at lower of cost or market using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) valuation method. Inventory was comprised of the following at June 30, 2016, June 30, 2015, March 31, 2016 and March 31, 2015:
Property and equipment, net
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straightline method on the various asset classes over their estimated useful lives, which range from three to ten years. Expenditures for major renewals and betterments that extend the useful lives of property and equipment are capitalized. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs, which do not extend the economic useful life of the related assets, are charged to operations as incurred.
Intangible assets, net
Intangible assets consist of patents and trademarks. Applicable longlived assets are amortized or depreciated over the shorter of their estimated useful lives, the estimated period that the assets will generate revenue, or the statutory or contractual term in the case of patents. Estimates of useful lives and periods of expected revenue generation are reviewed periodically for appropriateness and are based upon managements judgment. Patents are amortized on the straight-line method over their useful lives of 15 years.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company assesses the recoverability of its long-lived assets, including property and equipment, when there are indications that the assets might be impaired. When evaluating assets for potential impairment, the Company compares the carrying value of the asset to its estimated undiscounted future cash flows. If an assets carrying value exceeds such estimated undiscounted cash flows, the Company records an impairment charge for the difference between the carrying amount of the asset and its fair value.
Based on its assessments, the Company did not record any impairment charges for the three months ended June 30, 2016, the years ended June 30, 2016, June 30, 2015 and March 31, 2016 and the period May 12, 2014 (Inception) through March 31, 2015.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and convertible notes payable approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the guidance of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements.
ASC 820 defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. ASC 820 also establishes a fair value hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
Fair value measurements are categorized using a valuation hierarchy for disclosure of the inputs used to measure fair value, which prioritize the inputs into three broad levels:
Level 1 - Quoted prices are available in active markets for identical assets or liabilities as of the reporting date. Active markets are those in which transactions for the asset or liability occur in sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.
Level 2 - Pricing inputs are other than quoted prices in active markets included in level 1, which are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reported date, and include those financial instruments that are valued using models or other valuation methodologies.
Level 3 - Pricing inputs include significant inputs that are generally less observable from objective sources. These inputs may be used with internally developed methodologies that result in managements best estimate of fair value.
The Company evaluates its convertible debt, options, warrants or other contracts, if any, to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be separately accounted for in accordance with paragraph 815-10-05-4 and Section 815-40-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the embedded derivative is marked-to-market each balance sheet date and recorded as either an asset or a liability. The change in fair value is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations as other income or expense. Upon conversion, exercise or cancellation of a derivative instrument, the instrument is marked to fair value at the date of conversion, exercise or cancellation and then the related fair value is reclassified to equity.
In circumstances where the embedded conversion option in a convertible instrument is required to be bifurcated and there are also other embedded derivative instruments in the convertible instrument that are required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument.
The classification of derivative instruments, including whether such instruments should be recorded as liabilities or as equity, is re-assessed at the end of each reporting period. Equity instruments that are initially classified as equity that become subject to reclassification are reclassified to liability at the fair value of the instrument on the reclassification date. Derivative instrument liabilities will be classified in the balance sheet as current or non-current based on whether or not net-cash settlement of the derivative instrument is expected within 12 months of the balance sheet date.
The Company adopted Section 815-40-15 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (Section 815-40-15) to determine whether an instrument (or an embedded feature) is indexed to the Companys own stock. Section 815-40-15 provides that an entity should use a two-step approach to evaluate whether an equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to its own stock, including evaluating the instruments contingent exercise and settlement provisions.
The Company utilizes a binomial option pricing model to compute the fair value of the derivative and to mark to market the fair value of the derivative at each balance sheet date. The Company records the change in the fair value of the derivative as other income or expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
During the three months ended June 30, 2016, the Company received grant funds of $20,500. During the years ended June 30, 2016, June 30, 2015, March 31, 2016 and the period from May 12, 2014 (inception) through March 31, 2015, the Company received grant funds of $254,834, $167,499, $264,333 and $137,500, respectively. The Company recognizes nonrefundable grant revenue when it is received and reports this revenue as Grant income on the consolidated statements of operations.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred.
Advertising and marketing costs
The Company expenses advertising and marketing costs as incurred. These amounts were immaterial for the three months June 30, 2016, the years ended June 30, 2016, June 30, 2015, March 31, 2016 and the period from May 12, 2014 (inception) through March 31, 2015.
The Company recognizes compensation expense for all equitybased payments in accordance with ASC 718 Compensation Stock Compensation". Under fair value recognition provisions, the Company recognizes equitybased compensation net of an estimated forfeiture rate and recognizes compensation cost only for those shares expected to vest over the requisite service period of the award.
Restricted stock awards are granted at the discretion of the Company. These awards are restricted as to the transfer of ownership and generally vest over the requisite service periods, typically over a five-year period (vesting on a straightline basis). The fair value of a stock award is equal to the fair market value of a share of Company stock on the grant date.
The fair value of an option award is estimated on the date of grant using the BlackScholes option valuation model. The BlackScholes option valuation model requires the development of assumptions that are inputs into the model. These assumptions are the value of the underlying share, the expected stock volatility, the riskfree interest rate, the expected life of the option, the dividend yield on the underlying stock and the expected forfeiture rate. Expected volatility is benchmarked against similar companies in a similar industry over the expected option life and other appropriate factors. Riskfree interest rates are calculated based on continuously compounded riskfree rates for the appropriate term. The dividend yield is assumed to be zero as the Company has never paid or declared any cash dividends on its Common stock and does not intend to pay dividends on its Common stock in the foreseeable future. The expected forfeiture rate is estimated based on managements best estimate.
Determining the appropriate fair value model and calculating the fair value of equitybased payment awards requires the input of the subjective assumptions described above. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of equitybased payment awards represent managements best estimates, which involve inherent uncertainties and the application of managements judgment. As a result, if factors change and the Company uses different assumptions, our equitybased compensation could be materially different in the future. In addition, the Company is required to estimate the expected forfeiture rate and recognize expense only for those shares expected to vest. If the Companys actual forfeiture rate is materially different from its estimate, the equitybased compensation could be significantly different from what the Company has recorded in the current period.
The Company accounts for sharebased payments granted to nonemployees in accordance with ASC 505-40, Equity Based Payments to NonEmployees. The Company determines the fair value of the stockbased payment as either the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. If the fair value of the equity instruments issued is used, it is measured using the stock price and other measurement assumptions as of the earlier of either (1) the date at which a commitment for performance by the counterparty to earn the equity instruments is reached, or (2) the date at which the counterpartys performance is complete. The fair value of the equity instruments is re-measured each reporting period over the requisite service period.
The Company applies the elements of ASC 74010 Income Taxes regarding accounting for uncertainty in income taxes. This clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in financial statements and requires the impact of a tax position to be recognized in the financial statements if that position is more likely than not of being sustained by the taxing authority. As of March 31, 2016, no liability for unrecognized tax benefits was required to be reported. The Company does not expect that the amount of unrecognized tax benefits will significantly increase or decrease within the next twelve months. The Companys policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to tax matters in the income tax provision on the Statement of Operations. There was no interest and penalties for the periods ended June 30, 2016, June 30, 2015, March 31, 2016 and March 31, 2015.
Deferred taxes are computed based on the tax liability or benefit in future years of the reversal of temporary differences in the recognition of income or deduction of expenses between financial and tax reporting purposes. The net difference, if any, between the provision for taxes and taxes currently payable is reflected in the balance sheet as deferred taxes. Deferred tax assets and/or liabilities, if any, are classified as current and noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting purposes, or based on the expected reversal date for deferred taxes that are not related to an asset or liability. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to that amount which is more likely than not to be realized.
Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to Common Stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per common share is determined using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, adjusted for the dilutive effect of Common Stock equivalents. In periods when losses are reported, which is the case for the three months ended June 30, 2016, the years ended June 30, 2016, June 30, 2015 and March 31, 2016 and the period May 12, 2014 (Inception) through March 31, 2015 presented in these consolidated financial statements, the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding excludes Common Stock equivalents because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
The Company had the following Common Stock equivalents at June 30, 2016, June 30, 2015, March 31, 2016 and 2015:
Shares outstanding include shares of restricted stock with respect to which restrictions have not lapsed. Restricted stock included in reportable shares outstanding was 1,361,055, 546,886, 1,353,055 shares and 623,855 shares as of June 30, 2016, June 30, 2015, March 31, 2016 and March 31, 2015, respectively. Shares of restricted stock are included in the calculation of weighted average shares outstanding.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to current period presentation. The reclassifications did not have an impact on net loss as previously reported.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements-Going Concern. The Update provides U.S. GAAP guidance on managements responsibility in evaluating whether there is substantial doubt about a companys ability to continue as a going concern and about related footnote disclosures. For each reporting period, management will be required to evaluate whether there are conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about a companys ability to continue as a going concern within one year from the date the financial statements are issued. This Accounting Standards Update is the final version of Proposed Accounting Standards Update 2013-300Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205): Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entitys Going Concern Presumption, which has been deleted. The amendments in this Update are effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter. The Company is currently evaluating the effects of ASU 2014-15 on the consolidated financial statements.
In July 2015, the FASB issued the FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-11 Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (ASU 2015-11). The amendments in this Update do not apply to inventory that is measured using last-in, first-out (LIFO) or the retail inventory method. The amendments apply to all other inventory, which includes inventory that is measured using first-in, first-out (FIFO) or average cost. An entity should measure inventory within the scope of this Update at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. Subsequent measurement is unchanged for inventory measured using LIFO or the retail inventory method. For public business entities, the amendments in this Update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently evaluating the effects of ASU 2015-11 on the consolidated financial statements.
In November 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ASU No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes, which will require entities to present deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities as noncurrent in a classified balance sheet. The ASU simplifies the current guidance, which requires entities to separately present deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities as current and noncurrent in a classified balance sheet. The ASU may be applied either prospectively or retrospectively. The amendments in this ASU are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and interim periods within those annual periods. Earlier application is permitted as of the beginning of an interim or annual period. The Company is currently evaluating the effects of ASU 2015-17 on the consolidated financial statements.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The update addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments. For public business entities, the amendments in this Update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted only for certain portions of the ASU related to financial liabilities. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the provisions of this new standard on the consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-02, Leases (topic 842). The FASB issued this update to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. The updated guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of the update is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new standard.
In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation Stock Compensation (topic 718). The FASB issued this update to improve the accounting for employee share-based payments and affect all organizations that issue share-based payment awards to their employees. Several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment award transactions are simplified, including: (a) income tax consequences; (b) classification of awards as either equity or liabilities; and (c) classification on the statement of cash flows. The updated guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of the update is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new standard.
In August 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2016-15 (ASU 2016-15), Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. This update provides guidance on how to record eight specific cash flow issues. This update is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted and a retrospective transition method to each period should be presented. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of this update on its consolidated financial statements.
The Company has evaluated events that occurred subsequent to June 30, 2016 and through the date the consolidated financial statements were issued.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef