Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 3. Summary of significant accounting policies
Basis of presentation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Akoustis, Inc. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates and assumptions
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date(s) of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period(s).
Critical accounting estimates are estimates for which (a) the nature of the estimate is material due to the levels of subjectivity and judgment necessary to account for highly uncertain matters or the susceptibility of such matters to change and (b) the impact of the estimate on financial condition or operating performance is material. The Company’s critical accounting estimates and assumptions affecting the financial statements were:
These significant accounting estimates or assumptions bear the risk of change due to the fact that there are uncertainties attached to these estimates or assumptions, and certain estimates or assumptions are difficult to measure or value.
Management bases its estimates on various assumptions that are believed to be reasonable in relation to the financial statements taken as a whole under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash deposits. The Company maintains its cash in institutions insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). At times, the Company’s cash and cash equivalent balances may be uninsured or in amounts that exceed the FDIC insurance limits; as of June 30, 2020, approximately $44.1 million was uninsured.
Restricted cash at June 30, 2020 and June 30, 2019 represents a retained balance obligation included in a deposit account control agreement required by the Company’s 6.5% Convertible Senior Secured Notes due 2023 issued in May 2018. The restriction on the cash will lapse in conjunction with the extinguishment of the debt.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) valuation method.
Property and equipment, net
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight–line method on the various asset classes over their estimated useful lives, which range from two to eleven years. Expenditures for major renewals and betterments that extend the useful lives of property and equipment are capitalized. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs, which do not extend the economic useful life of the related assets, are charged to operations as incurred. The Company records gains or losses on the disposal of assets as the difference between net book value of assets and cash received less costs to dispose of assets. Gains or losses on the disposal of assets, as well as impairment of assets held for sale are recorded in operating expenses.
Intangible assets, net
Intangible assets consist of patents, and trademarks. Applicable long–lived assets are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives, the estimated period that the assets will generate revenue, or the statutory or contractual term in the case of patents. Estimates of useful lives and periods of expected revenue generation are reviewed for appropriateness and are based upon management’s judgment. Patents are amortized on the straight-line method over their useful lives of 15 years.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company assesses the recoverability of its long-lived assets, including property and equipment, when there are indications that the assets might be impaired. When evaluating assets for potential impairment, the Company compares the carrying value of the asset to its estimated undiscounted future cash flows. If an asset’s carrying value exceeds such estimated undiscounted cash flows, the Company records an impairment charge for the difference between the carrying amount of the asset and its fair value.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents and accounts payable approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the guidance of ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures,” which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements.
ASC 820 defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. ASC 820 also establishes a fair value hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
Fair value measurements are categorized using a valuation hierarchy for disclosure of the inputs used to measure fair value, which prioritize the inputs into three broad levels:
Level 1 - Quoted prices are available in active markets for identical assets or liabilities as of the reporting date. Active markets are those in which transactions for the asset or liability occur in sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.
Level 2 - Pricing inputs are other than quoted prices in active markets included in level 1, which are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reported date, and include those financial instruments that are valued using models or other valuation methodologies.
Level 3 - Pricing inputs include significant inputs that are generally less observable from objective sources. These inputs may be used with internally developed methodologies that result in management’s best estimate of fair value.
The Company evaluates its options, warrants, convertible notes, or other contracts, if any, to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be separately accounted for in accordance with paragraph 815-10-05-4 and Section 815-40-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the embedded derivative is marked-to-market each balance sheet date and recorded as either an asset or a liability. The change in fair value is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations as other income or expense. Upon conversion, exercise or cancellation of a derivative instrument, the instrument is marked to fair value at the date of conversion, exercise or cancellation and then the related fair value is reclassified to equity.
In circumstances where the embedded conversion option in a convertible instrument is required to be bifurcated and there are also other embedded derivative instruments in the convertible instrument that are required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument.
The classification of derivative instruments, including whether such instruments should be recorded as liabilities or as equity, is re-assessed at the end of each reporting period. Equity instruments that are initially classified as equity that become subject to reclassification are reclassified to liability at the fair value of the instrument on the reclassification date. Derivative instrument liabilities will be classified in the balance sheet as current or non-current based on whether or not net-cash settlement of the derivative instrument is expected within 12 months of the balance sheet date.
The Company adopted Section 815-40-15 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Section 815-40-15”) to determine whether an instrument (or an embedded feature) is indexed to the Company’s own stock. Section 815-40-15 provides that an entity should use a two-step approach to evaluate whether an equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to its own stock, including evaluating the instrument’s contingent exercise and settlement provisions.
The Company utilizes a Monte Carlo simulation to compute the fair value of the derivative liability and to mark to market the fair value of the derivative at each balance sheet date. The Company records the change in the fair value of the derivative as other income or expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company utilizes the with-and-without method, a form of the income approach model to compute the fair value of its embedded derivatives associated with its convertible note. The fair value of the embedded derivatives represents the difference in the present value of anticipated cash flows assuming the feature is present as compared to a security without the same feature. The Company records the change in the fair value of the derivative as other income or expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred.
The Company recognizes compensation expense for all equity–based payments in accordance with ASC 718 “Compensation – Stock Compensation”. Under fair value recognition provisions, the Company recognizes –based compensation net of actual forfeitures and recognizes compensation cost only for those shares expected to vest over the requisite service period of the award.
Restricted stock awards are granted at the discretion of the Company. These awards are restricted as to the transfer of ownership and generally vest over the requisite service periods, typically over a four-year period (generally vesting either ratably over the first four years or on a tier basis of 50% on the second anniversary of the effective date and 25% on the third and fourth anniversary dates). The fair value of a stock award is equal to the fair market value of a share of Company stock on the grant date.
The fair value of an option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black–Scholes option valuation model. The Black–Scholes option valuation model requires the development of assumptions that are inputs into the model. These assumptions are the value of the underlying share, the expected stock volatility, the risk–free interest rate, the expected life of the option, and the dividend yield on the underlying stock. Expected volatility is calculated using the historical volatilities of the Company’s common stock traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market. Risk–free interest rates are calculated based on continuously compounded risk–free rates for the appropriate term. The dividend yield is assumed to be zero as the Company has never paid or declared any cash dividends on its Common stock and does not intend to pay dividends on its Common stock in the foreseeable future. The Company accounts for the impact of forfeitures as they occur.
Determining the appropriate fair value model and calculating the fair value of equity–based payment awards requires the input of the subjective assumptions described above. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of equity–based payment awards represent management’s best estimates, which involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. As a result, if factors change and the Company uses different assumptions, equity–based compensation could be materially different in the future. In addition, the Company is required to account for the impact of forfeitures as those forfeitures occur. If the Company’s actual forfeitures are material, the equity–based compensation could be significantly different from what the Company has recorded in the current period.
In determining income for financial statement purposes, the Company must make certain estimates and judgments in the calculation of tax expense, the resultant tax liabilities, and in the recoverability of deferred tax assets that arise from temporary differences between the tax and financial statement recognition of revenue and expense.
As part of the financial process, the Company assesses on a tax jurisdictional basis the likelihood that the Company’s deferred tax assets can be recovered. If recovery is not more likely than not (a likelihood of less than 50 percent), the provision for taxes must be increased by recording a reserve in the form of a valuation allowance for the deferred tax assets that are estimated not to ultimately be recoverable. In this process, certain relevant criteria are evaluated including: the amount of income or loss in prior years, the existence of deferred tax liabilities that can be used to absorb deferred tax assets, future expected taxable income, and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. Changes in taxable income, market conditions, U.S. or international tax laws, and other factors may change the Company’s judgment regarding whether the Company will be able to realize the deferred tax assets. These changes, if any, may require material adjustments to the net deferred tax assets and an accompanying reduction or increase in income tax expense which will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in net income in the period when such determinations are made.
As part of the Company’s financial process, the Company also assess the likelihood that the Company’s tax reporting positions will ultimately be sustained. To the extent it is determined it is more likely than not (a likelihood of more than 50 percent) that some portion or all of a tax reporting position will ultimately not be recognized and sustained, a provision for unrecognized tax benefit is provided by either reducing the applicable deferred tax asset or accruing an income tax liability. The Company’s judgment regarding the sustainability of the Company’s tax reporting positions may change in the future due to changes in U.S. or international tax laws and other factors. These changes, if any, may require material adjustments to the related deferred tax assets or accrued income tax liabilities and an accompanying reduction or increase in income tax expense which will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in net income in the period when such determinations are made. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in selling, general and administrative expenses.
Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per common share is determined using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, adjusted for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents. In periods when losses are reported, which is the case for the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 presented in these consolidated financial statements, the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding excludes common stock equivalents because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
The Company had the following common stock equivalents at June 30, 2020 and 2019:
Shares outstanding include shares of restricted stock with respect to which restrictions have not lapsed. Shares of restricted stock are included in the calculation of weighted average shares outstanding. Restricted stock included in reportable shares outstanding were as follows as of June 30, 2020 and 2019.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to current period presentation. The reclassifications did not have an impact on net loss as previously reported.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting Pronouncements Recently Adopted
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842),” with multiple amendments subsequently issued. The new guidance requires that lease arrangements be presented on the lessee’s balance sheet by recording a right-of-use asset and a lease liability equal to the present value of the related future minimum lease payments. The Company adopted the standard in the first quarter of fiscal 2020, using the modified retrospective approach which permits lessees to recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated deficit in the period of adoption. Upon adoption, the Company recorded a right-of-use asset of $0.7 million and a lease liability of $0.7 million.
The Company elected the transition package of practical expedients, under which the Company does not have to reassess (1) whether any expired or existing contracts are leases, or contain leases, (2) the lease classification for any expired or existing leases, and (3) initial direct costs for any existing leases. Further, the Company elected the practical expedient not to separate lease and non-lease components for substantially all its classes of leases and to account for the combined lease and non-lease components as a single lease component. In addition, the Company made an accounting policy election to exclude leases with an initial term of 12 months or less from the balance sheet. This standard did not have a material impact on the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations or Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows. See Note 12 for further disclosures resulting from the adoption of this new standard.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. Under the new standard, companies are no longer required to value non-employee awards differently from employee awards. Companies value all equity classified awards on their grant date under ASC718 and forgo revaluing the award after the grant date. ASU 2018-07 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period. The Company adopted the standard during the first quarter of fiscal year 2020. This standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements. Approximately $0.3 million of accrued expenses associated with share-based compensation was reclassified to equity.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, “Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting,” which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a stock-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. The Company adopted the standard during the first quarter of fiscal year 2020 and there was no material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef